Dating arbuda arab so
Karl Menninger believes that, in such computations, they must have dispensed with the enciphered numerals and written down just sequences of digits to represent the numbers.
A zero would have been represented as a "missing place," such as a dot.
The Jain text entitled the Lokavibhaga, dated 458 CE, In 628 CE, astronomer-mathematician Brahmagupta wrote his text Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta which contained the first mathematical treatment of zero.
He defined zero as the result of subtracting a number from itself, postulated negative numbers and discussed their properties under arithmetical operations.
 In his text The Arithmetic of Al-Uqlîdisî (Dordrecht: D. They, amongst other works, contributed to the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle-East and the West.
The development of the numerals in early Europe is shown below: In the last few centuries, the European variety of Arabic numbers was spread around the world and gradually became the most commonly used numeral system in the world.
His word for zero was shunya (void), the same term previously used for the empty spot in 9-digit place-value system.
This provided a new perspective on the shunya-bindu as a numeral and paved the way for the eventual evolution of a zero digit.
They continued to be used in inscriptions until the end of the 9th century.
While the numerals in texts and inscriptions used a named place-value notation, a more efficient notation might have been employed in calculations, possibly from the 1st century CE.
Computations were carried out on clay tablets covered with a thin layer of sand, giving rise to the term dhuli-karana ("sand-work") for higher computation.
Its glyphs are descended from the Indian Brahmi numerals.
The full system emerged by the 8th to 9th centuries, and is first described in Al-Khwarizmi's On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals (ca.