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One of the earliest Chinese records of an independent kingdom in Borneo is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo.
which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.
), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.
The maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.
During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline.
Brunei became a Hashemite state when she allowed the Arab Emir of Mecca, Sharif Ali, to become her third sultan.
Scholars claim that the power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines (Sulu) and even in the northern Philippines (Manila) which Brunei incorporated via territorial acquisition accomplished through royal marriages.
However, European influence gradually brought an end to the regional power, as Brunei entered a period of decline compounded by internal strife over royal succession.Nevertheless, by the 16th century, Islam was firmly rooted in Brunei, and the country had built one of its biggest mosques.In 1578, Alonso Beltrán, a Spanish traveller, described it as being five stories tall and built on the water.Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984.Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country.